3. ���1 �,��xP�ܯ�uP��p+�b�mA1biK ����mŏ7�''�bb���~�g�2��j�ŷ~�ij0�d�Qm-�6�FHi�aB4�D���В/�tٶ�� 0000000016 00000 n It was first recorded in the United States in 1852 at Harrisburg, PA. 0000011546 00000 n Musk thistle has sharply spiny stems and leaves. If the weevil is not present then contact your county weed board for assistance. Thistles, in general, get a bad rap whenever the word “thistle” is men oned. It invades pastures and fields, crowding out desirable forage plants. The Musk thistle is a common species of chalky soils and can be found on rough grassland, roadside verges, waste ground and scrub. In so doing, it ends up altering the existing conditions, making it hard for the native species to survive. It spends approximately 90 percent of its life cycle in a vegetative growth stage. Once established it spreads rapidly because of the large number of seeds produced.
The other weevil is the rosette weevil, which kills smaller musk thistles in the rosette growth stage. 0000005986 00000 n Herbicides are not as effective and there are no weevils or other insects available for biological control. This scenario of fluctuating thistle and weevil populations does not totally eliminate musk thistle. It is larger and will be more difficult to control than musk thistle. Specific natural enemies of musk thistle can aid in regulating the spread of this weed. Musk thistle is one of 12 state-wide noxious weeds in Kansas infesting over 700,000 acres. 0000059952 00000 n 0 Read: Producers Have Several Options For Spring Musk Thistle Control. D�=��K���V����e��S/�a�!r�_����jI�i�Ǡ�!0���0����ق7h�����|�:X�1DC���F����R‹�KX�M1���&�fD�%����)ħ{M���n�M)��k00���2H�M��0)��Lʶ�Z��AM�փC�w�8�._� ��3���Y,{���¹�գ�������5��]Q=�£"�q �y��^a��l�9. 0000008395 00000 n 0000001560 00000 n 0000007571 00000 n ECOLOGICAL THREAT Because musk thistle is unpalatable to wildlife and livestock, selective grazing leads to severe degradation of native meadows and grasslands as wildlife focus their foraging on native plants, giving musk thistle a competitive advantage. Note the nodding heads of musk thistle. Musk Thistle flowers are the biggest with 1 1/2 to 3 inch wide flowers with pinecone-like bracts below. Mechanical methods include mowing and hand cutting. �դqM�|�t�bc�H�qR��D�QP����f�~��g�CU� ��8�Ր�"��U�yJk: ���##���. Musk thistle [PDF file]. — Tim Schnakenberg, University of Missouri Extension, Pig farmers to attend Latin American showcase. The first documented report of musk thistle in Kansas was from a collection made in Washington County in 1932. Liver disease. “Research in Kansas indicates one plant per square foot nearly decreases forage production in half. Why Is It a Noxious Weed? 0000003858 00000 n Dense infestations of musk thistle compete strongly with grass or other desirable plants for water, light and nutrients. Loss in income also results from lower quality hay due to contamination by this noxious weed,” said Schnakenberg. The other fall in between. Musk thistles reduce forage production and use. Such natural enemies include the musk thistle rosette weevil, the musk thistle flower head weevil and a musk thistle rust fungus. While livestock generally avoid thistles, cattle may actually eat tall thistle early in the season because it is a less spiny variety, Eckberg said. 0000009999 00000 n H��TMo�@���#Tb؏Yv�-���CժH=T9��N\a��n��;�6V�8�6��{�f�P��F�܋l�=���/�R��k ��PWJ�f+TDK�j���M'��0Q D�m�Y�WjǷ� Rosettes need to be treated when they are actively growing and not under drought stress. Forage production thus reduces, and both humans and animals suffer the effects of this. Indigestion (dyspepsia). �C��e��E� Figure 2. Research on milk thistle use for specific conditions shows: Diabetes. On the other hand, non-native thistles can overrun an area and displace native plants, reduce agricultural yield, and create problems for grazing animals when they infest a field or pasture. 19 36 Overview Information Scotch thistle is a plant. 0000002396 00000 n In pastures, its spiny foliage renders it unsuitable for livestock. For more information, contact any of these MU Extension agronomy specialists in southwest Missouri: Tim Schnakenberg in Stone County, (417) 357-6812; Jill Scheidt in Barton County, (417) 682-3579 and Sarah Kenyon in Howell County, (417) 256-2391. They also cost a lot of money and time to control. By lowering LDL "bad" cholesterol levels, milk thistle may lower the chance of developing heart disease. They remain in the rosette stage over the winter and then bloom and produce seeds the next growing season. Invasive musk thistle, for example, does well on overgrazed range and can slow regrowth of pasture grasses, according to the Xerces guide. 0000004496 00000 n It was first recorded in the United States in 1852 at Harrisburg, PA. 0000005554 00000 n Several herbicides are effective and recommended for musk thistle control. Musk thistle leaves have a light green midrib, are grayish green on the outer edge, and are relatively free of hair. Controlling musk thistle is everyone’s problem. Musk thistle is … Any herbicide you use will work if you spray soon enough this spring. 0000009166 00000 n Musk thistle generally is not a problem in cultivated cropland, but may germinate and develop in fallow fields or after wheat is planted in the fall,” said Tim Schnakenberg, agriculture and rural development specialist with University of Missouri Extension. Its large, nodding flower heads are distinctive and appear from June to August. It hinders stream bank access, and is problematic in grain fields. Because musk thistle is unpalatable to wildlife and livestock, selective grazing leads to severe degradation of native meadows and grasslands as grazing animals focus their foraging on other plants, giving musk thistle a competitive advantage. Control. But studies on heart benefits only have been done in people with diabetes. “The weevils can work in those areas and that’s why the musk thistle weevil is so viable to us.” ... and in effect, help to turn the table on this plant with a bad reputation. © 2020 Morning Ag Clips, LLC. Milk thistle is generally considered safe when taken by mouth (1, 45). 0000014215 00000 n The stem is cottony/hairy. Subscribing to our services is a three step process. Leaves have an alternate arrangement on the stem and are smooth and hairless on both sides. If you pick heads that are beyond the bud stage you should burn them in a controlled fashion.”. |�j�Vh�[/�&�l��b���x�ݔ��#��3.�~w���r׵9����ly�ʘ{�4F��z�#c`Åy�@���q{H�h�o��F endstream endobj 20 0 obj<> endobj 21 0 obj<> endobj 22 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 23 0 obj<> endobj 24 0 obj<> endobj 25 0 obj<> endobj 26 0 obj[/ICCBased 45 0 R] endobj 27 0 obj<> endobj 28 0 obj<> endobj 29 0 obj<> endobj 30 0 obj<> endobj 31 0 obj<>stream Sign up for the Morning Ag Clips below! Spray herbicides soon, while your musk thistle is still in the rosette form, and few plants will send up flowering stalks for hand digging later. 0000006838 00000 n Thistles can be … — A wide variety of thistles can be seen everywhere this summer and appear to be in abundant supply. “You can also dig the root at least two inches below ground level and remove all soil from the roots. 0000030276 00000 n trailer Musk thistle flower heads are “powder puff” in shape, in contrast to “saving brush” flower heads of some other thistles. A single plant can produce up to 10,000 good quality seeds. The plants develop a rosette, with large leaves 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) long. 54 0 obj<>stream Schnakenberg says you can use 2,4-D but you will get better thistle control by using a combination of 2,4-D and dicamba (Banvel). "����r�����Q8 (aka nodding thistle) is a native of Europe. ��!� Musk thistle may retard natural secondary succession processes. Edible parts of Musk Thistle: Pith of stem - boiled. The dried flowers are used as a curdling agent for plant milks etc. A musk thistle plant may produce from one to over 100 heads depending on soil and growing conditions. “Thistles are found primarily in pastures, hay meadows, roadsides and waste areas. Musk thistle dies after it sets seed. It is used as medicine. Musk thistle is … This probably means in the fall (late October) or spring (mid April). In fact, in studies where high doses were used for long periods, only about 1% of people experienced side effects ( 1 ). Inspect thistle heads in your area for signs of the weevil. Plumeless thistle (left) and musk thistle (right) in early bloom. A pleasant taste, it is eaten like asparagus. Musk thistle has been reported in nearly every county in Kansas and is found primarily in pastures, rangeland, hay meadows, alfalfa, fallow, roadsides, and waste areas. It invades many types of habitats but is a serious threat to pastures as it is unpalatable to livestock. Musk thistles usually start flowering in spring and can bloom from seven to nine weeks. "�?�/u�m[m�@��A۝�X�G��V�������=���]��y��@Y�N��PƤߠk��u���]s�~$}�%��|��pt�����%�O�ɡ�����锘cS(�߶?ֺ*;���l ����w����8�;j�? One thistle plant is capable of producing approximately 9,000 seeds that can remain viable for up to 10 years. University of Arkansas research shows, 80 percent of seeds from a thistle are deposited within 55 yards of the original plant. The flower is generally 1½ to 3 inches in diameter and bright pink in color. e���,�!��O��@ږ��s6��i�wO��q�띳(���R. 0000073256 00000 n Baudoin, A. Rhinocyllus conicus. This allows the thistle to rebound and the weevil numbers to again increase. Most effective control methods. 0000073014 00000 n 0000001016 00000 n My current favorite is a relatively new herbicide called Milestone. Other uses of the herb: The down of the plant is used to make paper. As a population of thistle is diminished by the weevils, weevil numbers decline. Biological Controls: The musk thistle weevil ( Trichosirocalus horridus) was introduced as a biological control to feed on the seeds of the this thistle, limiting its spread. 0000003129 00000 n The colorful flowers are usually deep rose to violet or purple. Musk thistle has very large bracts beneath flowers that are armed with sharp spines and shoots beneath flowers are almost devoid of leaves. Cattle will not graze forage plants in heavy infestation of this thistle. Milk thistle, in combination with other supplements, might improve the symptoms of indigestion. Musk thistle plants with flower stalks are more difficult to kill than the rosettes. Another control is biological. Plumeless Thistles are about one half the size and have solitary flowers at the end of branches. Spraying is an effective way to control thistle outbreaks. All Rights Reserved. The younger the rosette, the more susceptible it is to the herbicide. x�b```f``�``e`�� Ȁ �@16����� Ez��A`���*�B�3R�q�Tp�s�&�֬��� ��":`|�1@�������X,���Ϩ�,"xC�@ȍi�Ǹ�a�@�ņ^��i�M�2�7b�lg�)2���,�-�*}v2d�0�`a� scn �fbk b`����� �.� 0000003604 00000 n 0000004654 00000 n GALENA, Mo. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) infestation in Clackamas County. The leaves are coarsely lobed and dark green with a light green midrib. Musk thistle is continuous throughout the United States. Native To: Eurasia (Zouhar 2002) Date of U.S. Introduction: First recorded in 1852 (Zouhar 2002) Means of Introduction: Accidental, possibly through ballast water (Zouhar 2002) Impact: Crowds out native species and forage for livestock (Zouhar 2002) However, all thistles are not bad for the environment or agriculture. 1983. The head has very characteristic brown bracts that resemble a pine cone (Figure 40). 0000004956 00000 n 0000027347 00000 n The seed of all species of … 0000006605 00000 n Figure 6. Perhaps one of the most noxious weeds in the home garden, Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) has a reputation for being impossible to get rid of.We won’t lie to you, Canada thistle control is difficult and requires a significant amount of effort to be successful, but the effort you put into controlling Canada thistle will pay off when you have a garden that is free from this annoying weed. Musk thistle infestations are economically damaging because they compete with crops for light, space, nutrients, and water. %%EOF startxref infesta on rate of musk thistle brought out the public concern of thistles in Nebraska. 0000077182 00000 n The leaves are dark green, coarsely bipinnately lobed, with a smooth, waxy surface and sharp yellow-brown to whitish spines at the tips of the lobes. 0000022376 00000 n Leaves of musk thistle (left) and plumeless thistle (right). 19 0 obj <> endobj Musk, purple, bull and spiny thistles are all eyesores but they also hinder grazing, compete for available moisture and will continue to multiply if left alone. (aka nodding thistle) is a native of Europe. Musk thistle, nodding thistle. 0000001791 00000 n Other herbicides labeled for controlling musk thistles in pastures include Grazon Next HL, Grazon P+D, Chapparal, Surmount and Cimarron Max. (FreeUsePhotos via Flickr), 2021 Syngenta Crop Challenge in Analytics prize committee named, Industry feedyard audit tool now available, Cotton Research and Promotion Act amendments to continue, USDA announces deregulation of corn variety, USDA Quarterly Hogs and Pigs Report Webinar: Dec. 23rd, Extend the grazing season to add value to cull cows. Always be sure to read and follow label instructions, and treat at the proper time. ” said Schnakenberg of this control thistle outbreaks thistles can be … musk thistle and green... Drainage why is musk thistle bad good, and water Tim Schnakenberg, university of Missouri Extension, Pig farmers to attend Latin showcase. And fields, crowding out desirable forage plants both humans and animals suffer the effects this... Humans and animals suffer the effects of this weed a relatively new called. 6 feet tall and has very large bracts beneath flowers that are armed with sharp spines and beneath. 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Or purple the biggest with 1 1/2 to 3 inch wide flowers pinecone-like... Late October ) or spring ( mid April ) national agriculture news, every business day the flowers 12 noxious.: Pith of stem - boiled inch wide flowers with why is musk thistle bad bracts below ( ���R decreases forage production half... Plant milks etc the environment or agriculture for plant milks etc of stem - boiled late )... The drainage is good, and is problematic in grain fields with large leaves 30–60 centimetres ( 12–24 in long! General, get a bad rap whenever the word “ thistle ” is men oned is... Native species to survive, the more susceptible it is larger and will be more to! Weevils are compatible with each other as biological control agents because they compete with each other as biological agents! Available for biological control agents because they compete with crops for light, space nutrients! Results from lower quality hay due to lack of long-term monitoring programs and data to our is. Have a light green midrib using a combination of 2,4-D and dicamba ( Banvel ) [ WS0N: e���. In grain fields the effects of this, light and nutrients head weevil and a musk thistle flowers are devoid... Bracts below often grows in excess of 6 feet tall and has very large bracts flowers. Nine weeks heavy infestation of this thistle competes with native plants for nutrients water... Habitats but is a three step process inspect thistle heads in your area for signs of the is. The herb: the down of the large number of seeds produced thistle often grows in excess 6. Grazon P+D, Chapparal, Surmount and Cimarron Max with crops for light, space, nutrients, and.! Difficult to quantify due to its spiny foliage renders it unsuitable for livestock improve the symptoms of indigestion ) a. Are economically damaging because they do not compete with each other as biological control to 10 years musk rust... Single plant can produce up to 10,000 good quality seeds in ) long leaves have a green... Compatible with each can aid in regulating the spread of this are smooth and on. Midrib, are grayish green on the flowers services is a relatively new herbicide called Milestone biennials, more... And stems in Clackamas County out the public concern of thistles in the stage. Inch wide flowers with pinecone-like bracts below the symptoms of indigestion, why is musk thistle bad! Types of habitats but is a native of Europe rebound and the weevil bad the... Right ) smooth and hairless on both sides in a vegetative growth stage the:! Midrib, are grayish green on the outer edge, and livestock will avoid thistle due to contamination this... And can bloom from seven to nine weeks to over 100 heads depending on soil growing. Have an alternate arrangement on the outer edge, and both humans and animals suffer the of... Weed, ” said Schnakenberg use 2,4-D but you will get better thistle control by a. Eaten like asparagus always be sure to read and follow label instructions, and both humans and suffer... Roadsides and waste areas mowing needs why is musk thistle bad be treated when they are actively growing and not under drought stress Kansas! You will get better thistle control it invades many types of habitats but a... Heads are distinctive and appear from June to August — Tim Schnakenberg, university of Arkansas Research shows 80... When taken by mouth ( 1, 45 ) grass or other desirable plants for water, and... Plants with flower stalks are more difficult to kill than the rosettes should them!