The Goldback Fern displays a charming yellow from it’s leaves undersides and will add a burst of yellow to shady areas. Goldback – refers to the light yellow color on the back of the fern created by the powdery exudate Notes The light yellow powdery substance on the underside of the fronds is not spores, but a protective covering to inhibit dehydration I suppose that’s the beauty of these ones, as they’re adapted to go dormant when conditions aren’t conducive to growth. We need it, but an occasional break would be nice! Pityrogramma triangularis crozier emerging in early March. More Accounts and Images; Flora of North America (PITYR) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PITYR) Wildlife. Related Links. Interpreting Wetland Status. . This is the smallest species of fern that is known to grow on the farm. The gold back. Some of the banks here get very dry in summer. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. The Fronds typically grow in small clusters, The stem can range from a reddish brown to near black in color. Some of our plants certainly weren’t looking their best before the rain. It thrives here in zone 9b, but is hard to find in nurseries. It is shorter than the narrow leaf, but grows quicker, and has more forks in each leave. This species reportedly grows in USDA zones 6a through 9b, but is not readily obtainable from most plant nurseries. I had help from the spiders on that first pic. Petiole chestnut brown to dark brown, somewhat shiny, glabrous or sometimes viscid-glandular or rarely somewhat white-farinose proximally. Interesting to read how it acquired its name! Make sure … Native Introduced Native … In fact, it makes a fantastic houseplant because it’s so easy to care for! pete@eastbaywilds.com has uploaded 87644 photos to Flickr. — pale gold back fern ; P. triangularis subsp. . This species favors dry brushy areas, and rocky slopes, and is frequently found growing in the understory of oak and mixed evergreen forests on rocky outcroppings and road cuts. trusted. Interpreting Wetland Status. Time of year, and exposure, can affect the appearance of the fronds. In the summer months however, without water, this fern becomes dormant, and seems to all but disappear. Stem usually a dark reddish-brown or black color. overview; data; media; articles; maps; names If you are one of the editors of this guide it should copy everything, but if you're not, it will only copy the licensed content. The author is the owner of a fern nursery in England started in 1989. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. Pentagramma triangularis is a fern, commonly known as goldback fern, native to Western North America, including California.... Distribution 8 Pentagramma triangularis has a distribution from British Columbia south to Washington, Oregon, California … Excellent choice for shaded foundation planting, This golden waxy powder underneath the frond gives rise to the name Goldback Fern. Though classified as a xerophyte, it barely makes the grade. Looking at your photo of the underside of the fern I can really see how it is related to the maidenhair. This tropical fern thrives at 70-90 °F (21-32°C). Boston Fern Plant Care Basics. x Copy guide taxon to... You can copy this taxon into another guide. Active from shortly after first rains (October/November) through mid to late May. Three subspecies are recorded from California; CI plants not yet identified to subspecies. But you must ensure that adequate care and maintenance is taken. 1. I’ve only found Maidenhair in one area here, at the foot of a redwood slope along our winter drainage area. The veins were dark like this but red in colour. The fronds can appear different in width even on the same plant, Like the Western Sword Fern, Native American peoples found the Goldback Fern to have medicinal qualities. Boston Fern Care . I don’t know this fern. I’m happy to send you some rain, I’m actually getting a little tired of it. The common name of Goldback, or Goldenback Fern, is an accurate descriptor of this species, because when a mature leaf is turned over, golden yellow waxy spores are visible on the underside of the fern’s fronds. The deer don’t touch them, not even these little ones. To care for house-ferns, keep them in a shady area that gets plenty of indirect sunlight and make sure the soil around them stays moist at all times. This range involves the average room temperature in a tropical home; you can grow this adorable plant indoors. Pityrogramma triangularis, new foliage in March. Pentagramma triangularis (syn. Pteridaceae. . But it does have some very specific requirements you need to meet for optimal growth. The first and foremost thing is placing the fern pot in an appropriate area where it gets plenty of indirect sunlight. They seem to prefer grassier areas, rather than growing alongside the other ferns here. I love these little delicate ferns – great pictures you got. Yatsk. Goldback Fern Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) It deserves a little more photographic love, but at least now I have name (and a slightly satanic name to boot! Most plants and trees are inclined to grow well in outdoor surrounding and environment. The Plants Database includes the following 2 species of Pentagramma . They like to be kept in warm, humid conditions and don't appreciate being blasted by air from windows or heating/air conditioning vents. Pentogramma triangularis on hillside to the south of University Glen and Malibu Hall, CI. With the rains we’re also starting to see a hint of a few fungi re-emerging, like this Tremella sp. Where the plants are more protected the pinnae have a broader appearance. Article from flickr.com. collect. Underside of mature frond is covered in gold, waxy spores. And how nice to have such a foresty spot with your own native ferns. I love native ferns and this one is sweet! When the level of water reduces, add more. Wetland Status. However, some area speciality native plant nurseries may occasionally stock them, and if you have them growing in your gardens already, they can be propagated through division from late winter to early spring. The whitish sori line the veins on the underside of the frond. We’re fortunate to have so many Goldback Ferns that freely volunteer to grow here. The birds nest fern prefers to have indirect sunlight or shade conditions. Kirkpatric, Alan R. Smith and Thomas Lemieux). Each specimen has a short rhizome but produces long stolons. [1] Daniel E. Moerman’s Native American Ethnobotanical Database. Yurok children would apparently use the Goldback Fern fronds as decoration, pressing the spore side against their skin, leaving behind a decorative golden impression. The tall blade-like leaves belong to Dichelostemma capitatus (5 March 2013). It grows rapidly and makes a dramatic presentation. I wish our Maidenhair ferns (oh, that’s right…maybe we have 6 species of ferns here…I keep losing count) would grow as well as these little ferns. Generally occurs as small isolated plants or patches in well-shaded spots, including deep in crevices in rocks. A new Goldback Fern frond emerges as a tiny fiddle-head. With deep green flat leaves, the Platycerium bifurcatum makes for a great looking houseplant that’s also quite easy to grow. 805-437-8400 | Legal, California State University Channel Islands. Using my hand for scale, you can see just how tiny the newly emerging leaves are. Goldback Fern has an open growth habit, with fronds arranged in clusters on brown-black stems, up to 12 inches in length. Although we enjoyed the recent warm weather, we're grateful for the return of the rains (click any image to enlarge). I don’t know that I’ve seen this fern before. If this weather persists, we may still manage an extra ‘Mushroom Monday‘ post, or two, this season! . ). And, when fall comes, some of the fronds may also develop reddish or purple tones. I bought some heirloom tomatoes at a special tomato and pepper sale today, but don’t have time to get them into the ground before the rain comes. I suppose when all else fails on the landscaping front, in my battle of wills with the deer, I can always plant a fern garden! Yurok children would apparently use the Goldback Fern fronds as decoration, pressing the spore side against their skin, leaving behind a decorative golden impression. Goldback Ferns growing beneath some grasses on a steep bank above the road. Our soils along this road cut are a mix of sandstone and mudstone, and quite rocky. Windelov Java Fern: A unique variant with finely branched leaf tips. Goldback Fern: 5 lobed triangular fronds. You are fortunate to have so many growing at your farm. I’m really tired of rain, I haven’t checked to see where we are with rainfall, but I’m sure we’ve got to be over the average. Discover Life's page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Pityrogramma - Goldback fern -- Discover Life Alex Popovkin, Bahia, Brazil cc-by goldback fern includes 26 children: Very … Something I think you can relate to! They really don’t hold much presence on their own, unless there’s either a large mass of them, or they’re on a bank at about eye level. Clare, great to hear you are getting rain…I love ferns and am adding more native fern this year..what a great little fern you are lucky to have!! I haven’t seen any ferns coming up other that the evergreen type here. Wow! et al. In the forground is Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia (with the fern-like leaves); to the back is Claytonia perfoliata (19 February 2005). They don’t grow in the shadiest places beneath the redwoods. Some varieties of wood fern are also prized for their new growth, which emerges a coppery, pink, or orange color. I love ferns,especially the fronds that come up before they unfurl. Beautiful fronds, I particularly like the black markings. Pentogramma triangularis, detail of frond, note the very dark rachis ("stem") typical of this species, on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall, CI (28 February 2013). Frosty fern care also means upping the humidity, especially in the winter when air tends to be drier. et al. The goldback fern and certain cloak ferns (Argyrochosma and Notholaena) produce tiny waxy grains on their leaves, which aid in protecting the leaf surface and the fern … Elegant southern American native fern. Staghorn Fern Care is easy if you are aware of all the requirements. This plant has no children Legal Status. There are Bracken ferns a thousand feet higher than us at Bass Lake, but I’ve tried to start some Western Sword fern here. We have them mostly on the chaparral side of our property, on banks. During the winter when the plant isn't growing, you can reduce watering, but your fern should never be … Only a 10°C drop in temperature at night is bearable by this plant. A testament of your good farming and gardening practices! ssp. Saved by MarValSol Spreads by rhizomes into colonies. What a fantastic first photo! Trident Java Fern: This is one of the more uncommon variants, it has feathery lobed leaves with 2-5 lobes on each side of its leaves. Keeping or hanging the fern pots in the appropriate location. I ought to have guessed what they were called. Pentagramma Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw. With true Golden State hyperbole, they’re called “goldbacks” (the … Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) More Accounts and Images; Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PIMA12) Wildlife. A good way to maximize the humidity is to use a humidifier or fill a tray with pebbles and water and place it underneath the tray. It certainly looks to be a more delicate fern in size compared to others and good the way that it can rejuvenate itself after a drought. Our rain totals had us at less than 40% of ‘normal’ before this storm. Goldback Fern. Pityrogramma ×mackenneyi W.H. [1] Despite its preference for rocky exposed areas, Goldback Fern also tolerates significant shade, and occasionally we find it tucked in between the native redwood sorrel leaves, beneath the oaks. We don’t irrigate the areas where these ferns grow, so in the summer months they get no water at all. We have quite a few varieties that grow well in the hills not far from here. Food. Offering attractive texture and form, they make good cut accents for bouquets and are resistant to rabbits and deer. by Clare | Mar 16, 2012 | Farm Blog, Flora and Fauna, Native Plants, Natives | 26 comments. The gold back. Yatsk. At the same time, plants like Boston Fern do grow well indoors. Each summer it disappears, and each winter it comes back about the same size as the year before. These delightful ferns are sprouting all over the oak terraces, luxuriating in our unusually drippy spring. Wagner [austroamericana × calomelanos] – goldback fern Subordinate Taxa. There is one photograph of goldback fern in the JC Raulston Arboretum's Photograph Collection. Light. The birds nest plant doesn’t have to be hard to take care of. Nephrolepis ferns appreciate a little TLC. One thing I love about our native ferns, is they are completely deer proof! How to Care for a Maidenhair Fern . California State University Channel Islands The contrasting colours are so eye catching and one of the best features was it was deer proof. Certainly a plant that you’d miss here if you weren’t actively looking for it! General. Phegos means Oak in … These new fronds will become more broad as they mature. Fungi have been scarce this winter, but now the soils are saturated, we'll have to see what emerges in the next week or two. Known occurrences, collected specimens and observations of goldback fern. The Karok used Goldback Fern as an analgesic, and to control pain after childbirth, and the Miwok chewed the fern as a remedy for toothache. Ferns Wild Flowers Plants How To Make Pictures Photos Wildflowers Fern Flora. Keep moist, and plant in areas with dappled shade. Native to the western United States, this species can be found growing from British Columbia, south throughout California, and east to Nevada and Idaho, growing below 7,500 feet in elevation. Your beautiful fern reminds me much of my white-back fern, Celianthes argentea, which is just beginning to put up new fronds. Goldback Fern_Pentagramma triangularis__SGM. Pityrogramma triangularis, new foliage in March. – goldback fern Subordinate Taxa. However, Goldback Fern’s diminutive size makes this particular species very easy to overlook. Food. x Copy guide taxon to... You can copy this taxon into another guide. The easiest way to propagate foxtail ferns is through division. Hello Clare, I love all your little delicate ferns! goldback fern Pityrogramma sulphurea Jamaican goldback fern Pityrogramma trifoliata threeleaf goldback fern Legal Status. Newly emerging fronds in exposed sites are very small, and can be easy to miss. Pentagramma triangularis viscosa (silverback fern) cc-by-sa-2.0. et al. During the winter months we find it growing on some of the steepest banks above the road, mixed in with various grasses. Unresolved name: Plant » Green Plants » Streptophyta » Embryophyta » Vascular Plant » Polypodiophytina » Leptosporangiate Fern » Polypodiidae » Polypodiales » Maidenhairs And Shoelace Ferns » Goldback Fern « Penta, meaning five, and gramma meaning lined, this species is named for its five-lobed, broadly triangular fronds. EOL has data for 7 attributes. Love the closeup of the fern frond with your hand as perspective. If you are one of the editors of this guide it should copy everything, but if you're not, it will only copy the licensed content. To water a staghorn fern, simply dunk the entire arrangement into a bucket of water several times. Watt (fayg-OP-ter-is kon-NEK-tih-lis) Names: Narrow Beech Fern is also known asLong or Northern Beech Fern.Scientificsynonyms include: Thelyopteris phegopteris Dryopteris phegopteris, Phegopteris polypodioides, Polypodium connectile, and Polypodium phegopteris. It rarely seems to thrive there, however. Goldback fern chromosomes! Goldback Fern (Pentagramma triangularis) by Kelli Mar 3, 2007 11:13 PM. Not sure how much we’ve caught up, but this is now the fifth straight day of rain. Goldback Fern in California, USA, July 1998. Those water droplets from our storm were all suspended on web silk. At first glance you might not notice the Goldback Ferns lurking amidst the grass. Family. 1 University Dr., Camarillo CA, 93012 [Map] [1], Pressing the back of the leaf against your skin, or a piece of dark clothing, will leave a decorative impression. Very interesting. Oh yes, deerproof plants here definitely get my attention! And I am so glad you got some rain. I decided to pay attention to ferns yesterday, and though I didn't find that many species, I was glad to make the aquaintance of the goldback fern ( Pentagramma triangularis ), a plant I've seen frequently but for which I never had a name. When mature copious numbers of yellowish spores produced undersides of fronds. Widely distributed in western North America, and nearly throughout California in preferred habitats. x Copia la guía de taxón a... Puedes copiar este taxón en otra guía. Ways on How to Take Care of Ferns (Indoor and Outdoor) Here are some of the easiest ways through which you can properly take care of both outdoor and potted ferns. The frond edges may be curled under, especially during periods of water stress. Scientific Name. Leave a reply. This frond is further along, but not quite completely unfurled. Blade thin and herbaceous to thick and leathery, abaxially densely farinose, farina white or yellow, adaxially bright green to yellowish green when fresh, glabrous to glandular or viscid. Pityrogramma (Goldback Fern) is a genus of plants in the family Pteridaceae. Goldback Fern (Pentagramma triangularis) by Cretaceous Nov 15, 2007 1:57 AM. Pentagramma triangularis - Goldback Fern. When it is dry, it causes so many problems and creates a lot of work. Produces light green upright fronds on an open fountain shaped plant. Goldback Fern - Pentagramma triangularis. As the scientific name implies, the leaf of Pentagramma triangularis (goldback fern) has a triangular shape. Most plants and trees are inclined to grow well in outdoor surrounding and environment. I’m glad we’ve managed to catch up a little, and hopefully the plants will look better this spring for it too! They seem to like the somewhat more exposed areas here too. Good-NESS! I am still protecting it in a big pot, but I want to put it in the ground to see if it will grow. Not every Goldback frond has a golden yellow ventral surface. Glad you explained the reasoning behind the name “goldback”. This winter’s paucity of rainfall has impacted a number of our native plants, especially our deciduous fern species, including the Goldback Fern. Presumably, the curling of the edges of the pinnae serves to decrease surface area across the frond, and reduce water loss during warmer, and drier weather. Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Goldback Fern. Easily adapts to a variety of soils in warmer winter climates. Before the appearance of the yellow spores, whitish colored sori may be visible along the margins of the black veins. Subspecies. The leaves here average 2-3 inches in length. Frond size seems limited by the degree of the exposure. Java Fern Care View this species on GBIF . Marsh Fern family–Thelypteridaceae Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) Explore pete@eastbaywilds.com's photos on Flickr. Pentogramma triangularis at the end of its season, hillside to south of University Glen, CI (10 April 2013). At the same time, plants like Boston Fern do grow well indoors. Wood fern, also called Japanese shield fern, is an attractive easy-care fern that adds beautiful texture and color to shaded and woodland gardens. triangularis Maidenhair ferns are pretty particular about their soil and prefer a rich, slightly alkaline mix with plenty of compost. I think we have at least 5 different species of fern that grow here on their own. The Karok used Goldback Fern as an analgesic, and to control pain after childbirth, and the Miwok chewed the fern as a remedy for toothache. It takes root in the dampest nooks that it can find in the arid Sonoran landscape and grows in the shade so that it does not dry out so quickly. This fern, compared to our Western Sword Ferns, is absolutely tiny. Not extremely common. CI. Si eres uno de los editores de esta guía se debe copiar todo, pero si no eres entonces solamente se copiará el … Pentogramma triangularis on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall, CI. Glad to hear you’re getting some rain! Pentogramma triangularis on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall, CI (7 March 2013). ... our Goldback fern Pentagramma triangularis – ‘Western USA, Mexico’. Stenochlaena tenuifolia. View larger versions of the photographs and their details by clicking on them below. It usually grows to around 8 inches tall. We are significantly behind in our rainfall totals for this year, but during the last week the rains have made a valiant effort to catch up before Spring arrives. Once established, ostrich ferns spread rapidly and can be considered invasive. Until the pinnae are fully extended, the fronds have a somewhat contorted appearance. Wetland Status. Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw. Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw. Please note that the photographs below have common names that exactly match "goldback fern." Goldback Fern in California, USA, July 1998. I’m very glad they volunteer so freely here, and am more than happy to encourage them. Beautiful photos, Clare! This fern is native to British Columbia, Canada, and the western United States (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Washington). Read everything in detail to grow this beautiful plant easily in your home and garden. They are lovely though, and certainly worth a closer look! Article by Lisa Sumner. semipallida (J. Howell) G. Yatsk. Ferns prefer lots of humidity and temperatures around 70 °F, so try to keep the temperature and humidity levels consistent if you're growing your plants indoors. Mar 11, 2014 - Goldback Fern - Pentagramma triangularis. As with all outdoor ferns, keep the African Climbing Fern … Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) Your photos are brilliant and really show the beauty of this delicate fern. With the return of the rains, the Goldback Ferns are suddenly pushing lots of fresh new growth. Birds Nest Fern Care. When dividing potted plants of those in the ground, always use a sharp knife or spade to cut through the center of the plant. They really do look remarkably similar. It’s not terribly impressive from a distance, but I’m always happy to see them pop back in the winter months. I was also surprised to see how small these ferns are – I’m used to seeing much larger ones. But you must ensure that adequate care and maintenance is taken. triangularis Show All Show Tabs goldback fern It just looked so interesting draped between the Sword Fern fronds. Related Links. There is another short section on care and propagation but the real heart of the book is an extended encyclopaedic description of cultivated ferns and their cultivars. Yatsk., Windham & E. Wollenw. A staghorn fern (Platycerium) is an unusual fern that doesn't require soil. In more protected locations, in areas of shade, fronds may be significantly larger. Maintaining warmer temperatures is optimum an important part of crispy wave fern care. Goldback fern is a common name for several plants and may refer to: Pentagramma triangularis, native to western North America; Pityrogramma; This page is an index of articles on plant species (or higher taxonomic groups) with the same common name (vernacular name). I’m going to be looking for fungus too! New fronds also appear to be more narrow than those that are more mature, so there can be much variation in frond appearance, even on the same plant. Creatures » Cellular Organisms » Eukaryotes » Plants » Green Plants » Streptophyta » Embryophytes » Vascular Plant » Leptosporangiate Fern » Polypodiales » Maidenhairs And Shoelace Ferns » Goldback Fern « Pityrogramma triangularis) is a member of the Brake family of ferns (Pteridaceae), and related to our native California Maidenhair Ferns (Adiantum jordanii) that also grow on the farm. The Jepson Manual (2012: 132, Pteridaceae, Ruth E.B. Goldback Fern. I’m always amazed how the ferns I grow here come back here after long dry periods and even droughts. Boston Fern Plant Care Basics. It can be attached to an organic object, like a piece of driftwood, and hung from the wall. © 2021 Frond size can vary tremendously depending upon the stage, and location, of growth. Pentogramma triangularis on hillside to the south of Malibu Hall, CI (5 March 2013). There was such a variation in frond size, it seemed I needed something for scale to show the difference. The best time to do this is in the spring. Gorgeous photos, as always. . We recommend buying a high quality indoor potting soil and mixing a little compost in. Remove dead fronds and occasionally rotate the plant to keep it growing evenly. Your big rain is headed down the coast our way, due here sometime tonight. Ostrich Fern Care . What a beautiful fern. P. triangularis subsp. The Plants Database includes the following 3 subspecies of Pentagramma triangularis . All Text and Images © Curbstone Valley Farm, Unless Noted Otherwise, Designed by Curbstone Valley Farm | Copyright 2007 - 2020, GCH Alethia DJ Written N The Stars 5*M *D AR 3054, GCH Algedi Farm RB Ocean Flower 6*M *D AR 2777, SGCH Castle Rock Breakin My Heart 6*M 6*D AR 3060, SGCH Castle Rock River of Rain 1*M 4*D AR 3061, GCH Curbstone Valley Calypso 7*M 2*D AR 3089, SGCH Sierra Aspen Sky Pilot 2*M *D AR 3057, SG Curbstone Valley Rowena 3*M 3*D AR 2995, Castle Rock Hundred Year Storm 3*M 5*D AR 3088, Curbstone Valley Callirrhoe 7*M 2*D AR 3056, Curbstone Valley Cleodora 7*M 2*D AR 3053, Curbstone Valley Chanterelle 3*M 5*D AR 3169, Castle Rock Penny Serenade 2*M 4*D AR 3172, Castle Rock Worth Every Penny 3*M *D AR 3059, Curbstone Valley Carmenta 4*M 7*D AR 3055, Curbstone Valley Celastrina 4*M 7*D AR 2976, Curbstone Valley Madia Elegans 3*M 6*D AR 3041, Curbstone Valley Mariposa Lily 3*M 6*D AR 2793, Curbstone Valley Mojave Rose 3*M 6*D AR 2977, Camanna's Petite Paradise Nigerian Dairy Goats, National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, Pacific Coast Farmer's Market Association. It, though, would really like more moisture than we have here. When we were living in zone 8 I had a fern called a painted fern – Lady in Red I think. Pityrogramma triangularis crozier emerging in early March. Widely distributed in western North America, and nearly throughout California in preferred habitats. The fronds of the Goldback Fern grow much like other fern species, first appearing as small fiddle-heads. I remember when you posted that fern. triangularis) Goldback Fern. In our loose soils, that dry quickly once the rains cease, mature fronds don’t grow much larger than this. However, it is not frost-tolerant. It is commonly found in mixed evergreen and oak forests, occasionally on dry brushy slopes, and prefers shaded areas. I miss the sun! – goldback fern Subordinate Taxa. 3. I’d go broke if I had to pay to plant all the ones we have! Goldback Fern (Pentagramma triangularis ssp. Pentagramma triangularis is a fern, commonly known as goldback fern, native to Western North America, including California.. This is so interesting…and such a beautiful fern. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. This Goldback frond is bigger than my hand! It makes me wonder if when the taxonomists take a closer look at the genetics of these ferns, if they might not end up in the same Genus someday! Sounds like the kids used them like the little temporary tattoos that kids have nowadays. This frond is growing in more shade, and the pinnae appear more broad. The Goldback Fern seems to resent the rich acidic layer of redwood litter that accumulates at the base of those trees. Under Alan Smith‘s tutelage, over the last few weeks I (Keir) have been learning the science and art of meiotic chromosome counting; from selecting and harvesting material at the right stage (it is so easy to catch sporangia just a little too late) to getting the right combination of blotting, tapping, and pressing, I have learned so much AND … Soil and Potting. We primarily find this fern growing beneath Live Oaks, and California Bay Laurels, but not under our Coast Redwoods. Three subspecies are recorded from California; CI plants not yet identified to subspecies.