Lyytinen, K., & Yoo, Y. ), Handbook of interpersonal communication (3rd ed., pp. E-mail has the reputation to be less time-consuming, more reliable, and more efficient than a F2F meeting or a telephone conversation (e.g., Berghel, 1997). communication. Organizations provide smartphones to their employees to raise the flexibility of employees and to increase productivity and communication efficiency. Online access anytime, anyplace, differed the way communicators engage in e-mail (e.g., Lyytinen & Yoo, 2002a). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 568-581. If we keep in mind that both a computer and a smartphone have a switch-off button and that we are in control of the device and not the other way around, we can exploit the benefits of these new media, use them as resources, and be aware of their pitfalls. First, there is a possibility to “sugar-coat” the negative aspects of the feedback in an attempt to reduce the apparent negativity to the receiver. Financial Times, 29th Daantje Derks However, the results of our theoretical overview are mixed and even paradoxical on some occasions. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 17(2), 170-200. This information overload can lead to reduced productivity and can have negative effects on health and well being (White & Dorman, 2000). 35-51). (2000). On the move: technology, mobility, and the mediation of More specifically the sender’s status (Weisband, Schneider, & Connolly, 1993) and the recipient’s sense of affinity towards (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004) and expectation of reciprocity from the sender (Deckop, Cirka, & Andersson, 2003), will influence when and how the recipient responds to a message. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591-621. Especially employees high on work-home interference were still putting effort in their jobs during the time that might be used to recover from load effects that were build up during regular work time (Van Hooff, Geurts, Kompier & Taris, 2006). There are indications that egocentrism is an important source in miscommunication (Kruger, Epley, Parker, & Ng, 2005). Another, related concern is that because of the shift from F2F communication to CMC the occasions for casual communication decrease (Sarbaugh-Thompson & Feldman, 1998). Where F2F communication is about what is said and how it is said, e-mail communication is limited to the former. Tele-working involves work away from the office via telecommunication equipment (telephone, CMC etc.) Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment & Health, 32, 482-492. behavior. ... Email is now the primary means of communication in the modern workplace. Cambridge: Cambridge This is the digital divide; the ability to access technology. by gender, family type, and perceived control. London: Springer. In. Human Relations, 56, 1325-1347. The definition of communication technology has been proposed as “electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups” (QFinance, 2011, online). Taking into consideration the research on delay and interruptions it might be interesting to examine when interruptions are interpreted as a welcome variety in work and when interruptions are interpreted negatively as an interference of the flow an employee is in. Newbury Park: Sage. dissertation, Kungl Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden. Hove, England: Psychology Press. Here we discuss about the classification of electronic communication. 243-257). 227-241). Either way, your nonverbal communication can affect the messages you send, your relationships and your cultural interactions and help you negotiate through conversations. Network time and new knowledge epoch. The spotlight effect in causes. Bakker, A. Information Systems Research, 13, 377-389. Participation equality and The nature of communications was changed when mediated by mobile technology. The projective way of knowing: A useful heuristic that Hochschild (1983) argued that this form of emotional labor is not without costs for the employees because this process requires much effort from the employee. Green, and R.Harper (Eds. bad news as a social relation. B., & Parks, M. R. (2002). gaps between owners and buyers: Misperceptions of the endowment effect. Clark, H. H. (1996). verbal expression of emotion and the interrelationships among emotion Walther (1992) assumes that interactants are just as motivated to reduce uncertainty, form impressions and develop affinity in online settings as they are in face-to-face settings. In the next section, we will elaborate on the differences between sender and receiver in how they experience e-mail communication. Behavior. Jarvepaa, S., & Lang, K. (2005). October, p. 5. Pro-faced recipients of teases. An e-mail interrupt is any e-mail distraction that makes an employee to stop the planned activity. The illusion of Preferences for electronic mail in organizational This flexibility can give the employee more autonomy in work and an opportunity for a better work-life balance. The effect of electronic communication on everyday publication has increased the impact of mass communication, the change from verbally talking face to face and receiving and sending important things quicker. 361 0 obj <>stream A growing body of evidence states that when individuals try to anticipate on the perspective, thoughts, and/or feelings of someone else, they use themselves as the main reference point (Kruger et al., 2005). The JD-R model showed that demands only lead to an increase in strain when an employee is not capable to mobilize additional resources to compensate. impact of tele-working via computer-mediated communication. In W.B. The results showed that e-mail was cited as the primary cause of personal information overload. It is the shift of expectations and the “always on” culture that makes dealing with (mobile) e-mail an increasing demand. Perlow, L. (1997). of ICT “innovation” in Manchester. of electronic communication on social life at work. Social support from colleagues is considered an important resource in the light of the JD-R model and it has potential in buffering the undesirable effects of high job demands (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). productivity of mobile knowledge workers: An evaluation of a handheld wireless device. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Paper presented at the conference on computer supported cooperative work, Toronto. 191-202). Finding time: How corporations, individuals, and families If you grew up with a passive aggressive parent, you may have been affected in many profound, long-lasting ways. to Nonverbal Communication. Brown, N. Green, and R. Harper (Eds. Kruger et al. language use: Insights from a processing approach. As a result of spending much quality time together, users develop deep relationships with their smartphone (e.g., Lyytinen & Yoo, 2002b; Rheingold, 2002). Berkshire, UK: Quocirca. This results in ongoing monitoring and compulsive routines of chronic checking for new messages (Gergen, 2002). Do technologies have time? E-mail communication might be an important moderator in this process. Finally, it is easier to be anonymous while communicating on the internet. Many users report great pressures to respond whether or not they wanted to. computer-mediated communications. E-mail as a speed-facilitating device: A Academy of Management Review, 23, 309-327. ), Wireless world: social and interactional aspects of the mobile age (pp. nomadic computing. In. Diary studies are useful to examine the causal effects of staying attached to work in the evening hours and its consequences for performance and well-being the next working day. Some of the earliest forms of communication devices included runners and … (2005). The effect of social presence on the facial and description of use and utility. Another characteristic of e-mail is that it invites the sender to engage in short and shallow messages (Bertacco, 2007; Bertacco & Deponte, 2005). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CMC results in a reduction in intimacy because of the inability to directly engage with your interaction partner and having to deal with the obstacles from the mediator (Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire, 1987). Anytime/anyplace computing and the future of knowledge MA: Perseus Publishing. In particular, the displacement hypothesis suggests that online communication takes time away from face-to-face communication, weakening relationships, and encouraging weak relationships at the expense of strong ones (Kraut et al., 1998). Kruger and colleagues set up five experiments to examine to what extent participants overestimated their ability to communicate over e-mail. Additionally, you are in conscious control over which emotions you deliberately choose to display in your e-mail, since there is no risk of unconsciously leaking of nonverbal cues. Brown, N. Green, and R. Harper (Eds. Are you ready? Perlow, L. (1999). Nonverbal cues in computer-mediated A. B., Loh, T., & Granka, L. (2005). Straight talk: Delivering bad news Exchange of feedback: Electronic communication allows the instant exchange of feedback. 7-29). Finally, the effects of being predominantly home-based. and solving social problems. However, many people have a natural reluctance in communicating undesirable feedback, which is in the literature known as the “mum effect” (Rosen & Tesser, 1970). Recipients have to engage in constant monitoring to live up to the sender’s expectations according to acceptable reaction times in answering e-mails.The smartphone amplifies this process. Or, whether it has become an increasing demand and a facilitator of working long hours which may lead to burnout in the long run. Business deals are closed by e-mail, and a major part of the communication even with colleagues in close proximity takes place online (Renaud, Ramsay, & Hair, 2006). San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass. However, only half the world's population has internet access. Information Research, 10, paper 227. The implications of being “mobile” are discussed in the next section. First, electronic media contributes to the advancement of the business environment. Smartphone use can be very demanding since the employees experience closer monitoring and supervision, resulting in a lack of autonomy (an important resource according to the JD-R model). Robey, D., & Boudreau, M. (1999). Walther, J. In M. McLaughlin (Ed. This theory explicitly rejects that the absence of nonverbal cues restricts the interactants’ capability to exchange individuating information. Lee, V., & Wagner, H. (2002). Low cost: Electronic communication saves time and money. Imagine an ordinary day at work. Surprisingly, Sarbaugh-Thompson & Feldman (1998) found out that the increase in electronic mail did not offset the decrease in F2F and telephone interactions, producing a net decrease in overall communication in their population of organization members. 12, 225-241. This communication such as e-mail requires less cost than the traditional means of posting a … This makes e-mail a relatively “safe” environment (McKenna, Green, & Gleason, 2002). Some argue that online communication has an overall negative effect on relationships. Communication has been defined as “the transmission of information and meaning from one individual or group to another” (Guffey and Almonte, 2010, p.6). miscommunication of emotion by email. Wicklund, R. A., & Vandekerckhove, M. M. P. (2000). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship Their research examined the use of wireless devices by senior officers in the West Yorkshire Police. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the core assumptions of the JD-R model, subsequently we devote attention to the advantages and setbacks of e-mail at work, the individual differences in experiencing e-mail between sender and receiver, and, finally, we explore what the impact is of the increased mobility of employees facilitated by smartphones. Journal of Information Science, 27, 417-425. The managed heart: Commercialization of human New York: Academic Press. Interruptions seem to facilitate workers’ speed and accuracy, especially on monotonous well-learned tasks (Jett & George, 2003). It is expected that workers will be more responsive to an information request by e-mail from a higher status person, a friend, and/or when the expectations and norms regarding to reciprocity are high (Renneker & Godwin, 2005). Retrieved 17 March 2009, from http://InformationR.net/ir/10-2/paper227.html. Blog. Information Systems Research, 10, 167-185. Retrieved 17 March, 2009, from http://regmedia.co.uk/2004/06/21/... Walther, J. ), Communication Yearbook 9 (pp. However, the difference between notebooks and smartphones is the amount of perceived control an employee has over the initiative to start work. Finding a happy medium: Explaining the negative effect (1992). Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: A Since e-mail is still the most prevalent form of CMC in organizational life, we focus predominantly on e-mail communication. Mazmanian, M., Orlikowski, W. J., & Yates, J. An exploration of the emotional A Journal of Communication, 33, 131-152. sometimes misleads. Chan, S. U. In A. Kappas (Ed.). Kiesler, S., Siegel, J., & McGuire, T. (1984). Achieving frontline communication excellence: the cost to Marcusohn, L. M. (1995). The reluctance to transmit bad news. Negative Impact of Technology on Interpersonal Communication The current generation lacks essential interpersonal skills (the ability to express the ideas and thoughts to others, face-to-face). Mobile devices, such as the smartphone, increase our flexibility and help to improve our responsiveness at times we are not physically present at the office. The JD-R model states that two different processes play a role in the development of motivation and job strain. Orlikowski, W. J. White, M., & Dorman, S. M. (2000). IBM Systems Journal, 38, 652-676. However, cultural norms in organizations today still favor delivering bad news in a personal F2F conversation (Sussman & Sproull, 1999). Green, N. (2002). 5. Tesser, A., & Rosen, S. (1975). This may have consequences for the decoding of others’ emotions because we cannot make use of nonverbal cues in the interpretation of incoming messages. The benefits of e-mail are quite obvious for the sender. mediated communication. Leiter, M. P. (1993). Managing knowledge-based competition. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. You probably start in the morning with a cup of coffee, greet your colleagues and then the inevitable happens, you log in on your computer. If employers are aware of the disadvantages of working mobile for the employee, they can take action to minimize these effects. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the balance between formal and casual communication among workers. Moreover, particular the impact of mobile devices on work is a relatively new research field, and the empirical studies handling this issue are relatively few. organizations through stable interaction. We included studies that (1) handled the subject of e-mail communication in general, (2) had an interaction setting, preferably a focus on organizational communication, (3) had a focus on mobile technology, and (4) were identifiable as organizational psychological, social psychological and behavioral in nature. Whenever we talk about how the technology has changed our lives, we come across many good and bad things which have given to us by it.Along with many advantages, it provided us in every field, a lot of negative effects of technology are also there in many aspects. A still increasing number of organizations decide to go mobile and to provide their employees with smartphones. Jett, Q. R., & George, J. Strategies for technology use might be moderated by a worker’s relationship with coworkers and the culture within which the interaction takes place (Renneker & Godwin, 2005). Keysar, B. others know: Imputing one’s own knowledge to others. A., & Bargh, J. E-mail communication requires intent and planning which automatically reduces spontaneity and opportunities for social support. Vacations and other respites: Studying stress on and off the Recovery as an explanatory For example, the continuous availability cited before can decrease work delays (quick access to information) which leads to increased organization. Series in applied psychology: Social issues and questions (pp. This theoretical paper aims to overview the impact of (mobile) e-mail on organizational life. Duxbury, Higgins and Lee (1994) argue that work-life stress is explained in terms of perceived control. Or do they underestimate their work-home interference since the smartphone intrudes gradually in their private life. 483-510). Technology brings cultures ever closer. new look at the interface between nonwork and work. Therefore, this paper can function as an eye-opener since it lists the benefits as well ass the potential pitfalls for remote workers. One of the important outcomes of the JD-R model is that when both job demands and job resources are high, employees are motivated and engaged in their work (Demerouti et al., 2001). The positive effects of communication are stated as follows. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 66-76. These mixed experiences with (mobile) e-mail in organizational life made us wonder whether e-mail communication is mainly considered as an important resource that facilitates our work and may facilitate work engagement. Eden, D. (2001). B. Emotions are crucial for functioning in the work environment. Scaling place and networks: An ethnography In. Galagher, J., Sproull, L. & Kiesler, S. (1998). The information explosion in organizations. Legitimacy, authority and McKenna, K. Y. model of burnout and life satisfaction among nurses. Gergen, K. J. interruptions in organizational life. ), Perpetual contact: Mobile communication, private talk, public performance (pp. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ?&��P��%5�fE�,] Pb-fK��`��EҴl'��a(��,�x�7>b+�&�iH����� ��`\1"��''�¼D3���OE2 V�}��!\(�D����'3�����v��Crn��%� �u ��y���ŤX$��������qrEd�1�'��c3�iv����)��iz*�GMO�P�d�,^�/�������C��?�՟�F�UU7gg��q�˗�r��w��e�tԟ���YîO�Y���'�Cq��i1C��*F�|�F�J.�����܆x��?��sC��e�j�pN��i���������!X'�1am���U>+����j�PO�ۡrZ@! endstream endobj 330 0 obj <>/Metadata 15 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 327 0 R/StructTreeRoot 22 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 331 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 332 0 obj <>stream Research has indeed indicated that mobile tools can lead to increased productivity (Baron, 2005; Edwards, 2002; Locke, 2005) and to enhanced collaboration (Baron, 2005). Shaw, M. E. (1981). Electronic communication has become more important to workplace collaboration in the early 21st century. Work-home interference: How does it manifest itself from day to day? The mediated environment of e-mail communication might decrease the psychological discomfort of the sender during the communication process and as a consequence the feedback might be more straight and honest (Sussman & Sproull, 1999). Mann, S. (1998). ), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. User perceptions of email at work. Lang, J. C. (2001). Green (2002) showed that the advantages of mobility and “telepresence” sometimes were offset by the drawbacks of permanent availability for work. The impact of vacation and job stress on The ability to stay connected expands into new settings and challenges regarding expectations of availability, responsiveness and coordination (Mazmanian, Orlikowski, & Yates, 2006). ), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 8 (pp. Electronic media uses media such as television, radio, and internet enabled computers made possible by technology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 211-222. Social psychological aspects of In the light of the JD-R model, task variety, as a resource, can also be linked to positive outcomes. From 1980 to present day the advancement in technology has changed how families interact with each other and how household duties are done. ), Contexts of computer-mediated communication (pp. Studying the use of mobile technology. (2002). Computer-mediated communication and relationships. In contrast, job demands that are too high or have a chronic character may exhaust employees leading to a depletion of energy and accompanying health problems, including job burnout (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2000; Leiter, 1993; Lewig, Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Dollard, & Metzer, 2007). A smartphone is a wireless device with functions to manage your calendar, make phone calls, browse the Internet and to receive and answer e-mails anytime, anywhere. Sonnentag (2003) showed that individuals benefit from shorter rest periods that occur during the evenings of normal work weeks. 3., pp. contribution to the reduced-cues perspective on communication. At what cost pervasive? Sluiter, J.K., Van der Beek, A. J., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. W. (1999). ), Proceedings of the 24th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS 24) (Vol. Current directions in psychological science, 7, 46-50. Bergen, Norway: University of Bergen, Department of Information Science. The company’s increasing expectations regarding availability suggest that employees feel compelled to immediately respond to work-related messages even during leisure time (Davis, 2002). Executive control of Since e-mail is proven to be very practical in the exchange of documents (e.g., Sullivan, 1995) it has also become more common to deliver feedback on these documents by e-mail. The key terms used in the search were quite diverse because the single terms on e-mail communication and organizational life were not sufficient to collect all relevant studies. Keywords: CMC, JD-R model, e-mail, job demands, mobile technology, smartphone. ), Culture of the Internet (pp. Speed, communication Email: Business or pleasure? Other advances associated with smartphone use are improved responsiveness, real time information, faster decision making and more flexibility in work schedules. Learning from notes: Organizational issues in However, the costs of e-mail are disproportionally loaded on the recipient who engages in continuous activity switching between e-mail and other tasks (Renaud, Ramsay, & Hair, 2006). job. Organizational Science, 6, 186-203. Stoddart: Toronto. In addition, the lack of nonverbal cues also has consequences for the expression of our own emotions since every emotion has to be verbalized and part of the nonverbal expression happens unconsciously. (2004). 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